Andrew DeMaria

Author Archives: Andrew DeMaria

Automatic Remediation of Kubernetes Nodes

Automatic Remediation of Kubernetes Nodes
Automatic Remediation of Kubernetes Nodes

We use Kubernetes to run many of the diverse services that help us control Cloudflare’s edge. We have five geographically diverse clusters, with hundreds of nodes in our largest cluster. These clusters are self-managed on bare-metal machines which gives us a good amount of power and flexibility in the software and integrations with Kubernetes. However, it also means we don’t have a cloud provider to rely on for virtualizing or managing the nodes. This distinction becomes even more prominent when considering all the different reasons that nodes degrade. With self-managed bare-metal machines, the list of reasons that cause a node to become unhealthy include:

  • Hardware failures
  • Kernel-level software failures
  • Kubernetes cluster-level software failures
  • Degraded network communication
  • Software updates are required
  • Resource exhaustion1
Automatic Remediation of Kubernetes Nodes

Unhappy Nodes

We have plenty of examples of failures in the aforementioned categories, but one example has been particularly tedious to deal with. It starts with the following log line from the kernel:

unregister_netdevice: waiting for lo to become free. Usage count = 1

The issue is further observed with the number of network interfaces on the node owned by the Container Network Interface (CNI) plugin getting out of proportion with the number of running pods:

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