Author Archives: Orhan Ergun
Author Archives: Orhan Ergun
BGP AS Override needs to be understood well in order to understand the BGP loop prevention behavior, But why BGP AS Override might create a dangerous situation, and what are the alternatives of BGP AS Override will be explained in this post.
BGP AS Override feature is used to change the AS number or numbers in the AS Path attribute. Without BGP AS-Override, let’s see what would happen.
In this topology, Customer BGP AS is AS 100. The customer has two locations.
Service Provider, in the middle, let’s say providing MPLS VPN service for the customer.
As you can understand from the topology, Service Provider is running EBGP with the Customer, because they have different BGP Autonomous Systems.
The service provider in the above topology has BGP AS 200.
Left customer router, when it advertises BGP update message to the R2, R2 sends to R3 and when R3 sends to R4, R4 wouldn’t accept the BGP update,
When R4 receives that update, it will check the AS-Path attribute and would see its own BGP AS number in the AS Path.
Thus is by default rejected, due to EBGP loop prevention.
If the router sees its Continue reading
BGP Route Reflector – RR vs Confederation is one of the first things Network Engineers would like to understand when they learn both of these Internal BGP scalability mechanisms. For those who don’t know the basics of these mechanisms, please read BGP Route Reflector in Plain English and BGP Confederation Blog posts from the website first.
There are many differences when we compare Confederation vs Route Reflector and in this post, some of the items in the comparison chart will be explained.
Both of these techniques are used in Internal BGP for scalability purposes. But BGP RR changes the Full Mesh IBGP topologies to the Hub and Spoke. BGP confederation divides the Autonomous System into the sub-ASes but inside every Sub-AS, IBGP rules are applied.
Inside BGP Sub Autonomous System, full Mesh IBGP or Route Reflector is used. So, we consider BGP RR compare to Confederation to be more scalable because inside Sub-AS still full-mesh IBGP might be used.
If RR inside Sub-AS is deployed, then configuration complexity would increase.
BGP Route Reflector in order to prevent the routing loop Continue reading
In this post, we will compare BGP and EIGRP. We will look at some of the important aspects when we compare BGP vs EIGRP. Although EIGRP is used as an IGP and BGP is used mainly as an External routing protocol, we will compare from many different design aspects. Also, BGP can be used as an Internal IGP protocol as well and we will take that into consideration as well.
We prepared the above comparison chart for BGP vs EIGRP comparison. We will look at some of those important Comparison criteria from a design point of view.
One of the biggest reasons we choose BGP, not EIGRP is Scalability. BGP is used as a Global Internet routing protocol and as of 2022, the Global routing table size for IPv4 unicast prefixes is around 900 000. So almost a million prefixes we carry over BGP on the Internet.
So, proven scalability for BGP we can say. EIGRP usually can carry only a couple of thousands of prefixes, this is one of the reasons, EIGRPrp is used as an Internal dynamic routing protocol, not over the Internet.
DMVPN – Dynamic Multipoint VPN and MPLS VPN are two of the most popular VPN mechanisms. In this post, we will look at DMVPN vs MPLS VPN comparison, from many different aspects. At the end of this post, you will be more comfortable positioning these private VPN mechanisms.
When we compare the two protocols, we look at many different aspects. For this comparison, I think very first we should say that DMVPN is a Cisco preparatory tunnel-based VPN mechanism but MPLS VPN is standard-based, RFC 2547, non-tunnel based VPN mechanism. Although, whether MPLS LSP is a tunnel or not is an open discussion in the networking community, we won’t start that discussion here again.
Another important consideration for MPLS VPN vs DMVPN is, that DMVPN can be set up over the Internet but MPLS VPN works over private networks, Layer 2 or Layer 3 based private networks. DMVPN tunnels can come up over the Internet and inside the tunnels routing protocols can run to advertise the Local Area Networks subnets.
But MPLS requires Private network underlay.
Figure – DMVPN Networks can run over Internet or Private Networks
IS-IS is a link-state routing protocol, similar to OSPF. If you are looking for Service Provider grade, MPLS Traffic Engineering support, and extendible routing protocol for easier future migration then the only choice is IS-IS.
Commonly used in Service Providers, Datacenter (as an underlay), and some large Enterprise networks.
IS-IS works based on TLV format. TLVs provide extensibility to the IS-IS protocol.
IS-IS TLV Codes – Specified in RFC 1195
You don’t need totally different protocol to support new extensions. In IS-IS IPv6, MTR and many other protocols just can be used with additional TLVs.
IP support to IS-IS is added by the IETF after ISO invented it for the CLNS. If IS-IS is used together with IP, it is called Integrated IS-IS.
IS-IS doesn’t require an IP address for the neighborship.
MPLS Multiprotocol Label Switching is one of the most popular and commonly used technologies in today’s Service Provider and Enterprise networks. In this post, we will explain the most fundamental topics about MPLS. After reading this post, you will learn a lot about MPLS, why we should use MPLS to MPLS packet formats, USA cases of MPLS to MPLS advantages and MPLS disadvantages, some recommendations about MPLS books, MPLS training, some basics MPLS questions, and many other things will be covered. Sit tight and let’s enjoy!.
Multiprotocol Label Switching – MPLS, is a networking technology that switch the network traffic using the shortest path based on “labels,” rather than IP destination addresses, to handle forwarding over a private Wide Area Network.
MPLS is a scalable and protocol-independent solution, that can carry Layer 3 IP and Non-IP and Layer 2 traffic, PPP, HDLC, Frame-Relay, Ethernet, all are possible.
MPLS provides transport and can be considered one of the tunneling mechanisms.
An MPLS network is Layer 2.5, meaning it falls between Layer 2 (Data Link) and Layer 3 (Network) of the OSI Continue reading
Multicast PIM SSM – Source Specific Multicast from a design point of view will be explained in this post. The Shortest Path Tree concept, Advantages, and disadvantages of Multicast PIM SSM will be covered as well.
PIM is a Multicast Routing Protocol. There are two categories of PIM protocol. PIM Dense mode and PIM Sparse Mode.
PIM Sparse Mode has 3 different modes of deployment. PIM SSM – Source Specific Multicast, PIM ASM – Any Source Multicast, and PIM Bidir – Bidirectional Multicast.
In this post, we will only cover PIM SSM but for the other PIM Sparse mode and PIM Dense mode design and deployment posts, place check Multicast category.
PIM SSM is called Source-Specific because Multicast receivers not only specify the Multicast Group that they are interested in but also they can signal to the network which course they are interested in or they are not interested in.
In the routers, we have multicast routing tables. SSM Multicast routing entries in the routers are seen as S, G.
S stands for multicast Source and G is used for multicast Group.
Source information has to Continue reading
BGP Private and Public AS Range: On the internet, we have 2byte AS Numbers and 4 Byte AS Numbers. In this post, we will explain what are the BGP Private and Public AS Range for 2 byte AS and 4 byte AS numbers. Where Private BGP AS number is used and should be used and where Public AS Numbers in BGP is used and should be used. Not just where they should be used but also we will discuss where they shouldn’t be used too.
A 2 byte AS number is a 16-bit number. This format provides for 65536 ASNs (0 to 65535). From these ASNs, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) reserved 1,023 of them (64512 to 65534) for private/internal usage.
BGP Private AS Range for 2-byte AS Number is between 64512 to 65535.
So we have 1023 BGP AS Numbers to use in a 2-byte ASN schema. Private AS numbers, similar to the Private IP address range (RFC 1918), should be used internally in the networks.
Not, external networks, such as the Internet. On Internet, in the Global Routing table, which is also known as Default Free Continue reading
BGP LU – BGP Labeled Unicast was defined in RFC 3107. BGP LU is used so commonly in many different network architectures and frameworks. In this post, BGP LU is explained with its use cases.
BGP LU – Labeled Unicast allows BGP to advertise an MPLS Label for the IPv4 and IPv6 Unicast prefixes.
Those who know MPLS may know but let me remind you if an IP prefix is learned via IGP routing protocols such as OSPF and IS-IS, then LDP, RSVP, and Segment Routing can assign an MPLS Label. But if the prefix is learned via BGP, only BGP can assign an MPLS Label. Assigning a label by BGP for the IPv4 or IPv6 Unicast prefix is known as BGP Labeled Unicast.
It is quite easy to understand what is BGP LU but at the beginning of the post, as I said, let’s have a look at its use cases.
It is used in Inter-AS MPLS VPN Option C, between the ASBRs (Autonomous System Boundary Routers).
In Inter-AS Option C, infrastructure prefixes of ASes are exchanged and for those prefixes, MPLS Label is assigned by BGP. Inter-AS MPLS Continue reading
Unicast Multicast Broadcast Anycast and Incast Traffic Types will be explained in this post. Traffic flow/traffic types are important information that needs to be considered in Network Design, thus understanding each one of them by every IT Engineer is critical and Important for Application requirements, Security, and Performance of the overall system.
In this blog post, Unicast, Multicast, Broadcast, and Anycast traffic types/patterns will be explained with examples and the topologies.
Unicast traffic type is a point-to-point communication type. Usually from a scalability perspective, Unicast is not the desired traffic type. But if there are only two points that communicate with each other, Unicast is an optimal choice.
Point to Multipoint or Multi-Point to Multi-Point Traffic type. If the communication is targeted to a group of recipients, then the Multicast traffic type is more suitable. Multicast source/sender, receivers, and multicast groups are the components of Multicast communication. A classical example is IPTV – IP Television.
One multicast group is assigned for each IPTV channel and only interested receivers get the stream.
If traffic is sent to everyone, regardless of considering if there is an uninterested receiver, then it is a broadcast Continue reading
MPLS Benefits and Advantages, Network Engineers should understand MPLS. In this post, we will look at what are the benefits of deploying MPLS in the Network, and the advantages of having MPLS-enabled infrastructure.
MPLS is Multi-Protocol Label Switching as you might know already. Multi-Protocol because we can carry many different types of traffic over MPLS.
Layer 2 and Layer 3 network traffic Ethernet, Frame Frame-Relay, ATM, TDM different types of traffic was carried over MPLS. Because it provides an abstraction layer for the protocols, it is possible to carry many different types of traffic that couldn’t be possible with other technologies easily.
If we talk about MPLS benefits, probably one of the most important ones would be MPLS Scalability. There is a popular belief that MPLS was invented because the packet processing resource requirement and lookup speed are faster with MPLS, compare to IP destination-based lookup.
Because MPLS is just a switching operation on the Mid-Label Switch Routers – LSR, and MPLS Label is 20 bits long, compared to IP which is 32 bits long with IPv4 and 128 bits long with IPv6, MPLS was considered a better performance protocol, Continue reading
IGP vs BGP is one of the topics every Network Engineer want to learn in their career. In this post, without going into each IGP protocol detail, where and why IGP or BGP is used and should be used will discuss. As usual, we will look at it from a design aspect and understand the reasons for the protocol selection.
Although I will not explain the above chart in this blog post in detail, I would like to share it for completeness. Also, please note that we compared BGP with each IGP protocol from a design point of view on the website in different blog posts already.
When igp vs BGP is compared, the first thing we should understand is that BGP is the most scalable routing protocol and it is used for the Global Internet.
Global Internet, as of 2022, carries almost a million IPv4 Unicast prefixes.
When we talk about IGP scaling, OSPF, IS-IS, or EIGRP, can carry couple of tens of thousand prefixes, and after that, we may start seeing meltdowns, even in well-designed Continue reading
OSPF LSA Types is the first topic you need to understand if you are trying to understand OSPF routing protocol. There are 11 different types of LSA in OSPF and we will look at each one of them, why do we have many different LSA in OSPF, we will discuss the topologies and the examples to make it more clear for everyone.
We should start asking the most fundamental question first about OSPF. What is LSA?. LSA stands for Link State Advertisement and it carries, prefix information, interface cost, if advanced technologies such as Traffic Engineering are enabled, can carry link color information, used bandwidth, available bandwidth, and so on.
When a router receives an LSA, it is stored in the Link State Database (LSDB) of OSPF. Once the LSDBs between the routers are synchronized, OSPF uses the SPF/Dijkstra algorithm to calculate the best path for each destination network.
OSPF LSAs are information about a route that is transported inside OSPF Link State Update (LSU) packets.
We can only have scalable, resilient, fast-converged OSPF design when we understand OSPF LSAs and Area types and their restrictions
Figure -11 Different LSA Types is OSPF v2
New routing protocol to replace BGP is one of the most common questions every good Network Engineer in their career at least a few times encounter. In this post, we will look at some of those thoughts and we will discuss aims to replace BGP were real or not.
Locator and Identity Separation Protocol, RFC 6830, as an experimental RFC, was one of those technologies, many Network Engineers thought of as a replacement for BGP, especially over the Internet.
This was probably one of the biggest myths we have been discussing for years when we discuss Routing protocol to replace BGP, but first thing is, LSIP is not a Routing protocol!.
It is an IP in the IP Encapsulation mechanism, or in other words, a tunneling mechanism, which is mainly used to hide the Internal prefixes from the network core to avoid the control plane state. So, LISP helps for Routing protocol scalability but LISP was never aimed to replace BGP.
OSPF Load Balancing is to place multiple next-hops into the Routing and Forwarding table for a given IP destination prefix. In this post, we will look at OSPF Load Balancing, OSPF Load Sharing, OSPF ECMP, OSPF UCMP, where we should use it, where we shouldn’t use it, and what can be dangerous if we have OSPF Load balancing will be explained.
What is OSPF Equal Cost Load Balancing let’s have a look at the below topology and let’s try to understand?
In the above topology, the 192.168.0.0/24 network is connected to Router D.
As a link-state routing protocol, OSPF routers in the network would know that the 192.168.0.0/24 subnet is connected to Router D.
And they would run SPF/Dijkstra algorithm to calculate the shortest path to this destination.
In the above topology, Interface costs are shown.
When we look at Router A to 192.168.0.0/24 subnet, we have two paths. A-B-D and A-C-D.
Both of the paths’ total cost is 10+10 = 20.
Thus, Router A can do load balancing for that destination prefix.
When OSPF has two paths, we don’t need to Continue reading
BGP AS Path Prepending or BGP prepend is a common technique for incoming path manipulating. When we want to engineer the traffic coming from another BGP AS to our BGP AS, BGP AS prepending is one of the most common mechanisms. There are cases BGP AS Prepend doesn’t work and shouldn’t be used as well, and in this post, we will look at them too by using the below topology.
In the above topology, we have two BGP Autonomous Systems. AS 200 is Customer BGP AS, and AS 100 is Provider BGP AS.
As a customer, AS 200 wants AS100 to send the traffic over the left path as a Primary path and the right path as a backup path as is depicted in the above topology.
When we want to have Primary and Backup Paths as it is depicted in the above topology. BGP AS Path Prepending technique is used to influence upstream BGP Autonomous Systems’ decision.
BGP Prepend means, adding our BGP AS to the AS-path multiple times. In the above topology, 10.0.10.0/24 network’s BGP AS 200 is advertised with 3 AS prepend. By default when the prefix is advertised to Continue reading
In this post, we will compare EIGRP and OSPF. We will look at some of the important aspects when we compare EIGRP vs OSPF. From scalability, standardization, working on different topologies and many aspects will be compared in this most detailed comparison blog post on the Internet.
We prepared the above comparison chart for EIGRP vs OSPF comparison. We will look at some of those important Comparison criteria from a design point of view.
OSPF supports two layers of Hiearchicy. OSPF Backbone areas and OSPF Non-backbone areas. EIGRP on the other side supports as many as you want. You can summarize EIGRP prefixes at every hop. This capability provides a scale advantage to EIGRP. In EIGRP, we don’t need an ABR node for summarization for example.
The full mesh may require a lot of logical connections, OSPF with Mesh-group feature can scale but it can be a scaling problem for the EIGRP networks. If we think that in real-life networks, EIGRP is usually used in Hub and Spoke topologies most of the time, expecting EIGRP to run on Full-mesh topologies is not Continue reading
In this post, we will compare BGP and OSPF. We will look at some of the important aspects when we compare BGP vs OSPF. Although OSPF is used as an IGP and BGP is used mainly as an External routing protocol, we will compare from many different design aspects. Also, BGP can be used as an Internal IGP protocol as well and we will take that into consideration as well.
We prepared the above comparison chart for BGP vs OSPF comparison. We will look at some of those important Comparison criteria from a design point of view.
One of the biggest reasons we choose BGP, not OSPF is Scalability. BGP is used as a Global Internet routing protocol and as of 2022, the Global routing table size for IPv4 unicast prefixes is around 900 000. So almost a million prefixes we carry over BGP on the Internet.
So, proven scalability for BGP we can say. OSPF usually can carry only a couple of thousands of prefixes, this is one of the reasons, OSPF is used as an Internal dynamic routing protocol, not over the Internet.
BGP Weight Attribute is used in Cisco routers. In this post, with the below topology, we will look at why the BGP weight attribute is used, why it BGP weight shouldn’t be used, advantages and disadvantages of the BGP weight attribute.
Let’s first define what is BGP Weight attribute. BGP selects the best path based on the BGP path attributes. Weight is considered a very important tie-breaker in BGP’s best-path selection.
When there are two paths to any BGP destination prefix, the BGP Weight attribute is compared before BGP Local Preference and many other BGP Path attributes.
Since this is not BGP’s best path selection post, and assuming you already know the process, please note, Weight attribute is compared before even BGP Local Preference.
But, let’s have a look at the below topology to understand it better.
In the above topology, we want to use the left path for the prefixes in AS1, thus we have a higher BGP Local preference value.
As the BGP Local preference value is exchanged internally between all IBGP neighbors, both left and right routers in AS65000, use the left exit point, which is Local Pref 100 to reach the Continue reading
BGP Interview questions and answers are shared here. In this post, we will look at some of the important BGP questions that are asked in the Interviews and some of the certification exams. You can consider this as a BGP Quiz and test your BGP knowledge.
A. It is used for the reachability between PE devices in the MPLS network
B. It is used to carry EBGP prefixes inside an Autonomous System
C. It is used with Route Reflectors for the scalability reason in large scale networks
D. It is used to prevent failures outside your network from impacting your internal network operation
Answer: One of the correct answers to this question is to carry EBGP prefixes inside an Autonomous system. IGP is used for the reachability between PE devices in an MPLS network. Option C is valid but not the correct answer, because; the question is asking about the reasons, not the best practices.
Option D is one of the correct answers as well because, with IBGP, the internal network is protected from outside failures by separating the local failure domains.
That’s why; the answers to Continue reading