Author Archives: Oxana Kharitonova
Author Archives: Oxana Kharitonova
Translating source code written in a high-level programming language into an executable binary typically involves a series of steps, namely compiling and assembling the code into object files, and then linking those object files into the final executable. However, there are certain scenarios where it can be useful to apply an alternate approach that involves executing object files directly, bypassing the linker. For example, we might use it for malware analysis or when part of the code requires an incompatible compiler. We’ll be focusing on the latter scenario: when one of our libraries needed to be compiled differently from the rest of the code. Learning how to execute an object file directly will give you a much better sense of how code is compiled and linked together.
To demonstrate how this was done, we have previously published a series of posts on executing an object file:
The initial posts are dedicated to the x86 architecture. Since then the fleet of our working machines has expanded to include a large and growing number of ARM CPUs. This Continue reading
We want our digital data to be safe. We want to visit websites, send bank details, type passwords, sign documents online, login into remote computers, encrypt data before storing it in databases and be sure that nobody can tamper with it. Cryptography can provide a high degree of data security, but we need to protect cryptographic keys.
At the same time, we can’t have our key written somewhere securely and just access it occasionally. Quite the opposite, it’s involved in every request where we do crypto-operations. If a site supports TLS, then the private key is used to establish each connection.
Unfortunately cryptographic keys sometimes leak and when it happens, it is a big problem. Many leaks happen because of software bugs and security vulnerabilities. In this post we will learn how the Linux kernel can help protect cryptographic keys from a whole class of potential security vulnerabilities: memory access violations.
According to the NSA, around 70% of vulnerabilities in both Microsoft's and Google's code were related to memory safety issues. One of the consequences of incorrect memory accesses is leaking security data (including cryptographic keys). Cryptographic keys are just some (mostly random) data stored in Continue reading
We use ClickHouse widely at Cloudflare. It helps us with our internal analytics workload, bot management, customer dashboards, and many other systems. For instance, before Bot Management can analyze and classify our traffic, we need to collect logs. The Firewall Analytics tool needs to store and query data somewhere too. The same goes for our new Cloudflare Radar project. We are using ClickHouse for this purpose. It is a big database that can store huge amounts of data and return it on demand. This is not the first time we have talked about ClickHouse, there is a dedicated blogpost on how we introduced ClickHouse for HTTP analytics.
Our biggest cluster has more than 100 nodes, another one about half that number. Besides that, we have over 20 clusters that have at least three nodes and the replication factor of three. Our current insertion rate is about 90M rows per second.
We use the standard approach in ClickHouse schema design. At the top level we have clusters, which hold shards, a group of nodes, and a node is a physical machine. You can find technical characteristics of the nodes here. Stored data is replicated between clusters. Different shards hold different parts Continue reading