Author Archives: Omer Yoachimik
Author Archives: Omer Yoachimik
On the week of Black Friday, Cloudflare automatically detected and mitigated a unique ACK DDoS attack, which we’ve codenamed “Beat”, that targeted a Magic Transit customer. Usually, when attacks make headlines, it’s because of their size. However, in this case, it’s not the size that is unique but the method that appears to have been borrowed from the world of acoustics.
As can be seen in the graph below, the attack’s packet rate follows a wave-shaped pattern for over 8 hours. It seems as though the attacker was inspired by an acoustics concept called beat. In acoustics, a beat is a term that is used to describe an interference of two different wave frequencies. It is the superposition of the two waves. When the two waves are nearly 180 degrees out of phase, they create the beating phenomenon. When the two waves merge they amplify the sound and when they are out of sync they cancel one another, creating the beating effect.
Acedemo.org has a nice tool where you can create your own beat wave. As you can see in the screenshot below, the two waves in blue and red are out Continue reading
DDoS attacks are surging — both in frequency and sophistication. After doubling from Q1 to Q2, the total number of network layer attacks observed in Q3 doubled again — resulting in a 4x increase in number compared to the pre-COVID levels in the first quarter. Cloudflare also observed more attack vectors deployed than ever — in fact, while SYN, RST, and UDP floods continue to dominate the landscape, we saw an explosion in protocol specific attacks such as mDNS, Memcached, and Jenkins DoS attacks.
Here are other key network layer DDoS trends we observed in Q3:
The total number of L3/4 DDoS attacks we observe on our network continues to increase substantially, as indicated in the graph below. All in all, Continue reading
Today we’re announcing the availability of DDoS attack alerts. The alerts are available for free for all Cloudflare’s customers on paid plans.
Last week we celebrated Cloudflare’s 10th birthday in what we call Birthday Week. Every year, on each day of Birthday Week, we announce a new product with the goal of helping make the Internet a better place -- one that is safer and faster. To do that, over the years we’ve democratized many products that were previously only available to large enterprises by making them available for free (or at very low cost) to all. For example, on Cloudflare’s 7th birthday in 2017, we announced free unmetered DDoS protection as part of every Cloudflare product and every plan, including the free plan.
DDoS attacks aim to take down websites or online services and make them unavailable to the public. We wanted to make sure that every organization and every website is available and accessible, regardless if they can or can’t afford enterprise-grade DDoS protection. This has been a core part of our mission. We’ve been heavily investing in our DDoS protection capabilities over the last 10 years, and we will continue to do so in Continue reading
On July 3, Cloudflare’s global DDoS protection system, Gatebot, automatically detected and mitigated a UDP-based DDoS attack that peaked at 654 Gbps. The attack was part of a ten-day multi-vector DDoS campaign targeting a Magic Transit customer and was mitigated without any human intervention. The DDoS campaign is believed to have been generated by Moobot, a Mirai-based botnet. No downtime, service degradation, or false positives were reported by the customer.
Over those ten days, our systems automatically detected and mitigated over 5,000 DDoS attacks against this one customer, mainly UDP floods, SYN floods, ACK floods, and GRE floods. The largest DDoS attack was a UDP flood and lasted a mere 2 minutes. This attack targeted only one IP address but hit multiple ports. The attack originated from 18,705 unique IP addresses, each believed to be a Moobot-infected IoT device.
The attack was observed in Cloudflare’s data centers in 100 countries around the world. Approximately 89% of the attack traffic originated from just 10 countries with the US leading at 41%, followed by South Korea and Japan in second place (12% each), Continue reading
Magic Transit is Cloudflare’s L3 DDoS Scrubbing service for protecting network infrastructure. As part of our ongoing investment in Magic Transit and our DDoS protection capabilities, we’re excited to talk about a new piece of software helping to protect Magic Transit customers: flowtrackd. flowrackd is a software-defined DDoS protection system that significantly improves our ability to automatically detect and mitigate even the most complex TCP-based DDoS attacks. If you are a Magic Transit customer, this feature will be enabled by default at no additional cost on July 29, 2020.
In the first quarter of 2020, one out of every two L3/4 DDoS attacks Cloudflare mitigated was an ACK Flood, and over 66% of all L3/4 attacks were TCP based. Most types of DDoS attacks can be mitigated by finding unique characteristics that are present in all attack packets and using that to distinguish ‘good’ packets from the ‘bad’ ones. This is called "stateless" mitigation, because any packet that has these unique characteristics can simply be dropped without remembering any information (or "state") about the other packets that came before it. However, when attack packets have no unique characteristics, then "stateful" mitigation is required, because whether a Continue reading
On June 21, Cloudflare automatically mitigated a highly volumetric DDoS attack that peaked at 754 million packets per second. The attack was part of an organized four day campaign starting on June 18 and ending on June 21: attack traffic was sent from over 316,000 IP addresses towards a single Cloudflare IP address that was mostly used for websites on our Free plan. No downtime or service degradation was reported during the attack, and no charges accrued to customers due to our unmetered mitigation guarantee.
The attack was detected and handled automatically by Gatebot, our global DDoS detection and mitigation system without any manual intervention by our teams. Notably, because our automated systems were able to mitigate the attack without issue, no alerts or pages were sent to our on-call teams and no humans were involved at all.
During those four days, the attack utilized a combination of three attack vectors over the TCP protocol: SYN floods, ACK floods and SYN-ACK floods. The attack campaign sustained for multiple hours at rates exceeding 400-600 million packets per second Continue reading
As we wrapped up the first quarter of 2020, we set out to understand if and how DDoS attack trends have shifted during this unprecedented time of global shelter in place. Since then, traffic levels have increased by over 50% in many countries, but have DDoS attacks increased as well?
Traffic increases are often observed during holiday seasons. During holidays, people may spend more time online; whether shopping, ordering food, playing online games or a myriad of other online activities. This higher usage translates into higher revenue per minute for the companies that provide those various online services.
Downtime or service degradation during these peak times could result in user churn and loss of significant revenue in a very short time. ITIC estimates that the average cost of an outage is $5,600 per minute, which extrapolates to well over $300K per hour. It is therefore no surprise that attackers capitalize on the opportunity by launching a higher number of DDoS attacks during the holiday seasons.
The current pandemic has a similar cause and effect. People are forced to stay home. They have become more reliant on online services to accomplish their daily tasks which has generated a surge in the Continue reading
On Cloudflare’s 8th birthday in 2017, we announced free unmetered DDoS Protection as part of all of our plans, regardless if you’re an independent blogger using WordPress on Cloudflare's Free plan or part of a large enterprise operating global network infrastructures. Our DDoS protection covers attack vectors on Layers 3-7; whether highly distributed and volumetric (rate-intensive) or small and sneaky. We protect over 26 million Internet properties, and at this scale, identifying small and sneaky DDoS attacks can be challenging, especially at L7. In this post, we discuss this challenge along with trends that we’ve seen, interesting DDoS attacks, and how we’ve responded to them so that you don’t have to worry.
When analyzing attacks on the Cloudflare network, we’ve seen a steady decline in the proportion of L3/L4 DDoS attacks that exceed a rate of 30 Gbps in recent months. From September 2019 to March 2020, attacks peaking over 30 Gbps decreased by 82%, and in March 2020, more than 95% of all network-layer DDoS attacks peaked below 30 Gbps. Over the same time period, the average size of a DDoS attack has also steadily decreased by 53%, to just 11.88 Gbps. Yet, very large Continue reading
Back in March 2019, we released Firewall Analytics which provides insights into HTTP security events across all of Cloudflare's protection suite; Firewall rule matches, HTTP DDoS Attacks, Site Security Level which harnesses Cloudflare's threat intelligence, and more. It helps customers tailor their security configurations more effectively. The initial release was for Enterprise customers, however we believe that everyone should have access to powerful tools, not just large enterprises, and so in December 2019 we extended those same enterprise-level analytics to our Business and Pro customers.
Since then, we’ve built on top of our analytics platform; improved the usability, added more functionality and extended it to additional Cloudflare services in the form of Account Analytics, DNS Analytics, Load Balancing Analytics, Monitoring Analytics and more.
Our entire analytics platform harnesses the powerful GraphQL framework which is also available to customers that want to build, export and share their own custom reports and dashboards.
Until recently, all of our dashboards were mostly HTTP-oriented and provided visibility into HTTP attributes such as the user agent, hosts, cached resources, etc. This is valuable to customers that use Cloudflare to protect and accelerate HTTP Continue reading
It was a scorching Monday on July 22 as temperatures soared above 37°C (99°F) in Austin, TX, the live music capital of the world. Only hours earlier, the last crowds dispersed from the historic East 6th Street entertainment district. A few blocks away, Cloudflarians were starting to make their way to the office. Little did those early arrivers know that they would soon be unknowingly participating in a Cloudflare time honored tradition of dogfooding new services before releasing them to the wild.
Dogfooding is when an organization uses its own products. In this case, we dogfed our newest cloud service, Magic Transit, which both protects and accelerates our customers’ entire network infrastructure—not just their web properties or TCP/UDP applications. With Magic Transit, Cloudflare announces your IP prefixes via BGP, attracts (routes) your traffic to our global network edge, blocks bad packets, and delivers good packets to your data centers via Anycast GRE.
We decided to use Austin’s network because we wanted to test the new service on a live network with real traffic from real people and apps. Continue reading