I'm trying to create perfect screen captures of SDR to explain the world of radio around us. In this blogpost, I'm going to discuss some of the imperfect captures I'm getting, specifically, some notes about WiFi and Bluetooth.
An SDR is a "software defined radio" which digitally samples radio waves and uses number crunching to decode the signal into data. Among the simplest thing an SDR can do is look at a chunk of spectrum and see signal strength. This is shown below, where I'm monitoring part of the famous 2.4 GHz pectrum used by WiFi/Bluetooth/microwave-ovens:
There are two panes. The top shows the current signal strength as graph. The bottom pane is the "waterfall" graph showing signal strength over time, display strength as colors: black means almost no signal, blue means some, and yellow means a strong signal.
The signal strength graph is a bowl shape, because we are actually sampling at a specific frequency of 2.42 GHz, and the further away from this "center", the less accurate the analysis. Thus, the algorithms think there is more signal the further away from the center we are.
What we do see here is two peaks, at 2.402 Continue reading
Earlier today a cybersecurity advisory was published by international security agencies identifying widespread attacks against government and private sector targets worldwide. You can read the full report here, which discusses widespread, distributed, and anonymized brute force access attempts since mid-2019 and still active through early 2021.
Today, we have rolled out WAF mitigations to protect our customers against these types of attacks.
And we are making the exposed credential check feature of Account Takeover Protection available to all paid plans at no additional charge today. We had been planning to release these features later this month to a subset of our customers, but when we were informed of this ongoing attack we accelerated the release timeline and expanded those eligible to use the protections.
The attack which we are now protecting against was carried out in three main steps:
We are excited to announce a new look and new capabilities for Cloudflare Logs! Customers on our Enterprise plan can now configure Logpush for Firewall Events and Network Error Logs Reports directly from the dashboard. Additionally, it’s easier to send Logs directly to our analytics partners Microsoft Azure Sentinel, Splunk, Sumo Logic, and Datadog. This blog post discusses how customers use Cloudflare Logs, how we’ve made it easier to consume logs, and tours the new user interface.
Cloudflare Logs are almost as old as Cloudflare itself, but we have a few big improvements: new datasets and new destinations.
Cloudflare has a large number of products, and nearly all of them can generate Logs in different data sets. We have “HTTP Request” Logs, or one log line for every L7 HTTP request that we handle (whether cached or not). We also provide connection Logs for Spectrum, our proxy for any TCP or UDP based application. Gateway, part of our Cloudflare for Teams suite, can provide Logs for HTTP and DNS traffic.
Today, we are introducing two new data sets:
Firewall Events gives insight into malicious traffic handled by Cloudflare. It provides detailed information Continue reading
On Hacker News, this article claiming "You won't live to see a 128-bit CPU" is trending". Sadly, it was non-technical, so didn't really contain anything useful. I thought I'd write up some technical notes.
The issue isn't the CPU, but memory. It's not about the size of computations, but when CPUs will need more than 64-bits to address all the memory future computers will have. It's a simple question of math and Moore's Law.
Today, Intel's server CPUs support 48-bit addresses, which is enough to address 256-terabytes of memory -- in theory. In practice, Amazon's AWS cloud servers are offered up to 24-terabytes, or 45-bit addresses, in the year 2020.
Doing the math, it means we have 19-bits or 38-years left before we exceed the 64-bit registers in modern processors. This means that by the year 2058, we'll exceed the current address size and need to move 128-bits. Most people reading this blogpost will be alive to see that, though probably retired.
There are lots of reasons to suspect that this event will come both sooner and later.
It could come sooner if storage merges with memory. We are moving away from rotating platters of rust toward solid-state Continue reading
At the end of last year we launched vulnerability scanning options as part of the Docker platform. We worked together with our partner Snyk to include security testing options along multiple points of your inner loop. We incorporated scanning options into the Hub, so that you can configure your repositories to automatically scan all the pushed images. We also added a scanning command to the Docker CLI on Docker Desktop for Mac and Windows, so that you can run vulnerability scans for images on your local machine. The earlier in your development that you find these vulnerabilities, the easier and cheaper it is to fix them. Vulnerability scan results also provide remediation guidance on things that you can do to remove the reported vulnerabilities. Some of the examples of remediation include recommendations for alternative base images with lower vulnerability counts, or package upgrades that have already resolved the specified vulnerabilities.
We are now making another update in our security journey, by bringing “docker scan” to the Docker CLI on Linux. The experience of scanning on Linux is identical to what we have already launched for Desktop CLI, with scanning support for linux/amd64 (x86-64) Docker images. The Continue reading
Over the past year, Cloudflare Gateway has grown from a DNS filtering solution to a Secure Web Gateway. That growth has allowed customers to protect their organizations with fine-grained identity-based HTTP policies and malware protection wherever their users are. But what about other Internet-bound, non-HTTP traffic that users generate every day — like SSH?
Today we’re excited to announce the ability for administrators to configure network-based policies in Cloudflare Gateway. Like DNS and HTTP policy enforcement, organizations can use network selectors like IP address and port to control access to any network origin.
Because Cloudflare for Teams integrates with your identity provider, it also gives you the ability to create identity-based network policies. This means you can now control access to non-HTTP resources on a per-user basis regardless of where they are or what device they’re accessing that resource from.
A major goal for Cloudflare One is to expand the number of on-ramps to Cloudflare — just send your traffic to our edge however you wish and we’ll make sure it gets to the destination as quickly and securely as possible. We released Magic WAN and Magic Firewall to let administrators replace MPLS connections, define routing decisions, and apply packet-based Continue reading
Fear sells. Fear of missing out, fear of being an imposter, fear of crime, fear of injury, fear of sickness … we can all think of times when people we know (or worse, a people in the throes of madness of crowds) have made really bad decisions because they were afraid of something. Bruce Schneier has documented this a number of times. For instance: “it’s smart politics to exaggerate terrorist threats” and “fear makes people deferential, docile, and distrustful, and both politicians and marketers have learned to take advantage of this.” Here is a paper comparing the risk of death in a bathtub to death because of a terrorist attack—bathtubs win.
But while fear sells, the desire to appear unafraid also sells—and it conditions people’s behavior much more than we might think. For instance, we often say of surveillance “if you have done nothing wrong, you have nothing to hide”—a bit of meaningless bravado. What does this latter attitude—“I don’t have anything to worry about”—cause in terms of security?
Several attempts at researching this phenomenon have come to the same conclusion: average users will often intentionally not use things they see someone they perceive as paranoid using. Continue reading
On May 27 2021, the Internet Engineering Task Force published RFC 9000 - the standardarized version of the QUIC transport protocol. The QUIC Working Group declared themselves done by issuing a Last Call 7 months ago. The i's have been dotted and the t's crossed, RFC 8999 - RFC 9002 are a suite of documents that capture years of engineering design and testing of QUIC. This marks a big occasion.
And today, one day later, we’ve made the standardized version of QUIC available to Cloudflare customers.
Transport protocols have a history of being hard to deploy on the Internet. QUIC overcomes this challenge by basing itself on top of UDP. Compared to TCP, QUIC has security by default, protecting almost all bytes from prying eyes or "helpful" middleboxes that can end up making things worse. It has designed-in features that speed up connection handshakes and mitigate the performance perils that can strike on networks that suffer loss or delays. It is pluggable, providing clear standardised extensions point that will allow smooth, iterative development and deployment of new features or performance enhancements for years to come.
The killer feature of QUIC, however, is that it is deployable in reality. We are Continue reading
Azure VMware Solution (AVS) is a VMware validated private cloud solution managed and maintained by Azure. It runs on dedicated bare-metal Azure infrastructure. AVS allows customers to manage and secure applications across VMware environments and Microsoft Azure with a consistent operating framework. It supports workload migration, VM deployment, and Azure service consumption.
As AVS private cloud runs on an isolated Azure environment, it is not accessible from Azure or the Internet by default. Users can use either ExpressRoute Global Reach (i.e., from on-prem) or a jump box (i.e., on an Azure VNet) to access AVS private cloud. This means AVS workload VMs are confined within AVS private cloud and not accessible from the Internet.
But what if customers want to make AVS Private Cloud resources, such as web servers, accessible from the Internet? In that case, Public IP needs to be deployed. There are couple of ways to do this: (1) Azure Application Gateway, and (2) Destination NAT or DNAT using Azure WAN Hub and Firewall. Azure Application Gateway is Continue reading
The Kubernetes Security and Observability Summit is only 1 week away! The industry’s first and only conference solely focused on Kubernetes security and observability will be taking place online June 3, 2021.
During the Summit, DevOps, SREs, platform architects, and security teams will enjoy the chance to network with industry experts and explore trends, strategies, and technologies for securing, observing and troubleshooting cloud-native applications.
What does security and observability mean in a cloud-native context? What challenges should Kubernetes practitioners anticipate and what opportunities should they investigate? Join us to explore these types of questions and gain valuable insight you’ll be able to take back to your teams.
Tigera’s President & CEO, Ratan Tipirneni, will kick off the Summit with an opening keynote address. Two additional keynotes from Graeme Hay of Morgan Stanley and Keith Neilson of Discover Financial Services will follow. Attendees will then have the opportunity to attend breakout sessions organized into three tracks:
During these sessions, experts from industry-leading companies like Amazon, Box, Citi, EY, Mirantis, Morgan Stanley, PayPal, Salesforce, and of course, Tigera, will share real-world stories, best practices, and technical concepts related to Continue reading
When Cloudflare started, sophisticated online security was beyond the reach of all but the largest organizations. If your pockets were deep enough, you could buy the necessary services — and the support that was required to operate them — to keep your online operations secure, fast, and reliable. For everyone else? You were out of luck.
We wanted to change that: to help build a better Internet. To build a set of services that weren’t just technically sophisticated, but easy to use. Accessible. Affordable. Part of this meant that we were always looking to build and equip our customers with all the tools they needed in order to do this for themselves.
Of course, a lot has changed since we started. The Internet has only increased in importance, fast becoming the most important channel for many businesses. Cybersecurity threats have only become more prevalent — and more sophisticated. And the products that Cloudflare offers to keep you safe on the Internet have attracted some of the largest and most recognizable organizations in the world.
Ask some of these larger organizations about cybersecurity, and they’ll tell you a few things: first, they love our products. But, second, that when something happens Continue reading
Data centers are an appealing target for cybercriminals. Even though they may be more difficult to compromise than the home computer of a kid playing Fortnite or the laptop of a sales representative connecting to a random wireless network, they can bring very large rewards: databases with millions of records containing financial and personal information, substantial computational resources that can be used to mine cryptocurrencies, and access to key assets that can be held for ransom.
In this blog post, we analyze the main pathways that cybercriminals leverage to gain access to data centers, how they take advantage of that access, and what security administrators can do to reduce and manage the associated risks.
The obvious first goal of an attacker is to gain access to the targeted data center. This can be achieved in several ways — including social engineering , physical access , and occasionally by deer — but anecdotal evidence suggests that the two main avenues are remote exploitation (also known as remote-to-local attacks ), and stolen credentials .
In a remote-to-local attack, an attacker targets a remotely accessible service provided by one of the workloads running in the data Continue reading
The inaugural Kubernetes Security and Observability Summit will be a free, live, online experience full of Kubernetes-related security and observability content. On June 3, 2021, industry experts will gather under one virtual roof to discuss trends, strategies, and technologies for Kubernetes security and observability, to help you understand and navigate today’s pressing issues in the world of cloud-native applications.
The Summit is a great opportunity to:
SREs, platform architects, and DevOps and security teams will all find value in attending the Summit.
An opening keynote address from Continue reading
Today at RSA Conference 2021, we’re excited to announce that VMware is a winner of the CyberDefense Magazine 2021 Global InfoSec Award as Market Leader in Firewall. One of VMware’s core beliefs is that we need structural and architectural changes to how organizations approach security. This means taking a fresh look at how we approach issues such as internal data center security. This is exactly what led us to deliver the VMware NSX Service-defined Firewall.
The NSX Service-defined Firewall is one of the foundations of VMware Security. This solution is a unique distributed, scale-out internal firewall that protects all east-west traffic across all workloads without network changes. This radically simplifies the security deployment model. It includes a distributed firewall, advanced threat protection, and network traffic analytics. With the VMware NSX Service-defined Firewall, security teams can protect their organizations from cyberattacks that make it past the traditional network perimeter and attempt to move laterally. Its key differentiating capabilities include:
Select all the buses. Click on bikes. Does this photo have traffic lights? As ridiculous as these questions are, you’re almost guaranteed to have seen one recently. They are a way for online services to separate humans from bots, and they’re called CAPTCHAs. CAPTCHAs strengthen the security of online services. But while they do that, there’s a very real cost associated with them.
Based on our data, it takes a user on average 32 seconds to complete a CAPTCHA challenge. There are 4.6 billion global Internet users. We assume a typical Internet user sees approximately one CAPTCHA every 10 days.
This very simple back of the envelope math equates to somewhere in the order of 500 human years wasted every single day — just for us to prove our humanity.
Today, we are launching an experiment to end this madness. We want to get rid of CAPTCHAs completely. The idea is rather simple: a real human should be able to touch or look at their device to prove they are human, without revealing their identity. We want you to be able to prove that you are human without revealing which human you are! You may ask if this is Continue reading
Juniper's newly announced Security Director Cloud lays a policy foundation for an eventual SASE offering. Juniper hopes to keep customers from going to competitors' offerings as it realizes its own SASE vision.
The post Security Director Cloud Is Juniper’s SASE Vision Board appeared first on Packet Pushers.
Intentionally poisoning BGP routes in the Default-Free Zone (DFZ) would always be a bad thing, right? Actually, this is a fairly common method to steer traffic flows away from and through specific autonomous systems. How does this work, how common is it, and who does this? Jared Smith joins us on this episode of the Hedge to discuss the technique, and his research into how frequently it is used.