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Category Archives for "ipSpace.net"

What Causes ICMP Redirects?

A while ago, I wrote a blog post explaining why we should (mostly) disable ICMP redirects, triggering a series of comments discussing the root cause of ICMP redirects. A few of those blamed static routes, including:

Put another way, the presence or absence of ICMP Redirects is a red herring, usually pointing to architectural/design issues instead. In this example, using vPC Peer Gateway or, better yet, running a minimal IGP instead of relying on static routes eliminates ICMP Redirects from both the problem and solution spaces simultaneously.

Unfortunately, that’s not the case. You can get ICMP redirects in well-designed networks running more than one routing protocol.

netlab Release 1.4.1: Cisco ASAv

The star of the netlab release 1.4.1 is Cisco ASAv support: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, IS-IS and BGP, and libvirt box building instructions.

Other new features include:

Upgrading is as easy as ever: execute pip3 install --upgrade networklab.

New to netlab? Start with the Getting Started document and the installation guide.

Congestion Control Algorithms Are Not Fair

Creating a mathematical model of queuing in a distributed system is hard (Queuing Theory was one of the most challenging ipSpace.net webinars so far), and so instead of solutions based on control theory and mathematical models we often get what seems to be promising stuff.

Things that look intuitively promising aren’t always what we expect them to be, at least according to an MIT group that analyzed delay-bounding TCP congestion control algorithms (CCA) and found that most of them result in unfair distribution of bandwidth across parallel flows in scenarios that diverge from spherical cow in vacuum. Even worse, they claim that:

[…] Our paper provides a detailed model and rigorous proof that shows how all delay-bounding, delay-convergent CCAs must suffer from such problems.

It seems QoS will remain spaghetti-throwing black magic for a bit longer…

Azure Networking Update (Phase 1)

Last week I completed the first part of the annual Azure Networking update. The Azure Firewall section is already online; hope you’ll find it useful. I already have the materials for the Private Link and Gateway Load Balancer services, but haven’t decided whether to schedule another live session to cover them, or just create a short video.

Then there are a half-dozen smaller things I found while processing a year worth of Azure networking News. You’ll find them (and links to documentation) in New Azure Services and Features document.

Integrated Routing and Bridging (IRB) Design Models

Imagine you built a layer-2 fabric with tons of VLANs stretched all over the place. Now the users want to exchange traffic between those VLANs, and the obvious question is: which devices should do layer-2 forwarding (bridging) and which ones should do layer-3 forwarding (routing)?

There are four typical designs you can use to solve that challenge:

  • Exchange traffic between VLANs outside of the fabric (edge routing)
  • Route on core switches (centralized routing)
  • Route on ingress (asymmetric IRB)
  • Route on ingress and egress (symmetric IRB)

This blog post is an overview of the design models; we’ll cover each design in a separate blog post.

Network Automation: a Service Provider Perspective

Antti Ristimäki left an interesting comment on Network Automation Considered Harmful blog post detailing why it’s suboptimal to run manually-configured modern service provider network.


I really don’t see how a network any larger and more complex than a small and simple enterprise or campus network can be developed and engineered in a consistent manner without full automation. At least routing intensive networks might have very complex configurations related to e.g. routing policies and it would be next to impossible to configure them manually, at least without errors and in a consistent way.

netlab: IRB with Anycast Gateways

netlab release 1.4 added support for static anycast gateways and VRRP. Today we’ll use that functionality to add anycast gateways to the VLAN trunk lab:

Lab topology

Lab topology

We’ll start with the VLAN trunk lab topology and make the following changes:

  • We’ll rearrange the node list to make sure the switches get the lowest possible node ID:
nodes: [ s1, s2, h1, h2, h3, h4 ]
  • The switches have to use the new gateway module:
groups: switches: members: [ s1, s2 ] module: [ vlan, gateway ] device: eos
  • We have to enable first-hop gateway on VLAN links:
vlans: red: gateway: True blue: gateway: True
  • The default FHRP protocol is anycast (we could also use VRRP), and the default shared IP address is the last IP address in the subnet. We’ll use the first IP address in the subnet:
gateway.id: 1

After starting the lab you’ll notice the change in node identifiers and interface IP addresses. Without the anycast gateway, netlab assigns node ID 1 (and loopback IP address 10.0.0.1) to S1. Now that the node ID 1 is reserved, S1 gets loopback address 10.0.0.2.

The only other change on the Continue reading

Worth Reading: Another Hugo-Based Blog

Bruno Wollmann migrated his blog post to Hugo/GitHub/CloudFlare (the exact toolchain I’m using for one of my personal web sites) and described his choices and improved user- and author experience.

As I keep telling you, always make sure you own your content. There’s absolutely no reason to publish stuff you spent hours researching and creating on legacy platforms like WordPress, third-party walled gardens like LinkedIn, or “free services” obsessed with gathering visitors' personal data like Medium.

Multihoming Cannot Be Solved within a Network

Henk made an interesting comment that finally triggered me to organize my thoughts about network-level host multihoming1:

The problems I see with routing are: [hard stuff], host multihoming, [even more hard stuff]. To solve some of those, we should have true identifier/locator separation. Not an after-thought like LISP, but something built into the layer-3 addressing architecture.

Proponents of various clean-slate (RINA) and pimp-my-Internet (LISP) approaches are quick to point out how their solution solves multihoming. I might be missing something, but it seems like that problem cannot be solved within the network.

BGP in ipSpace.net Design Clinic

The ipSpace.net Design Clinic has been running for a bit over than a year. We covered tons of interesting technologies and design challenges, resulting in over 13 hours of content (so far), including several BGP-related discussions:

All the Design Clinic discussions are available with Standard or Expert ipSpace.net Subscription, and anyone can submit new design/discussion challenges.

BGP Unnumbered Duct Tape

Every time I mention unnumbered BGP sessions in a webinar, someone inevitably asks “and how exactly does that work?” I always replied “gee, that’s a blog post I should write one of these days,” and although some readers might find it long overdue, here it is ;)

We’ll work with a simple two-router lab with two parallel unnumbered links between them. Both devices will be running Cumulus VX 4.4.0 (FRR 8.4.0 container generates almost identical printouts).

BGP Route Reflectors in the Forwarding Path

Bela Varkonyi left two intriguing comments on my Leave BGP Next Hops Unchanged on Reflected Routes blog post. Let’s start with:

The original RR design has a lot of limitations. For usual enterprise networks I always suggested to follow the topology with RRs (every interim node is an RR), since this would become the most robust configuration where a link failure would have the less impact.

He’s talking about the extreme case of hierarchical route reflectors, a concept I first encountered when designing a large service provider network. Here’s a simplified conceptual diagram (lines between boxes are physical links as well as IBGP sessions between loopback interfaces):

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