Sandra Henry-Stocker

Author Archives: Sandra Henry-Stocker

Using the xargs command on Linux to simplify your work

The xargs command on Linux can make it easier to build and execute commands. If you want to run the same command for a group of files or users, xargs can often make that process easier. Here's a very simple example of xargs that creates or updates the update time on some files.$ echo file1 file2 file3 | xargs touch $ ls -l total 0 -rw-r--r--. 1 shs shs 0 Oct 15 12:41 file1 -rw-r--r--. 1 shs shs 0 Oct 15 12:41 file2 -rw-r--r--. 1 shs shs 0 Oct 15 12:41 file3 The command below is similar, but creates a file with blanks in its name because the -d specifies the input termination character.To read this article in full, please click here

Using the xargs command on Linux to simplify your work

The xargs command on Linux can make it easier to build and execute commands. If you want to run the same command for a group of files or users, xargs can often make that process easier. Here's a very simple example of xargs that creates or updates the update time on some files.$ echo file1 file2 file3 | xargs touch $ ls -l total 0 -rw-r--r--. 1 shs shs 0 Oct 15 12:41 file1 -rw-r--r--. 1 shs shs 0 Oct 15 12:41 file2 -rw-r--r--. 1 shs shs 0 Oct 15 12:41 file3 The command below is similar, but creates a file with blanks in its name because the -d specifies the input termination character.To read this article in full, please click here

Windows Subsystem for Linux is ready for Windows 11

Microsoft has just made the Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) available in the Microsoft Store for Windows 11 systems. WSL is the application that allows Windows users to run a GNU/Linux environment directly on Windows without the overhead of a virtual machine or dual-boot setup.One good aspect is that it installs as a separate app, decoupled from the OS. This means that users can update the app without having to wait for Windows OS updates to become available.Summarizing your command-line usage on Linux The app in the Microsoft Store is not a new version of WSL. It’s still WSL 2, but is a preview version that was added as an option for end users to get the latest features faster and more conveniently. The binaries will no longer be part of the Windows image.To read this article in full, please click here

Windows Subsystem for Linux is ready for Windows 11

Microsoft has just made the Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) available in the Microsoft Store for Windows 11 systems. WSL is the application that allows Windows users to run a GNU/Linux environment directly on Windows without the overhead of a virtual machine or dual-boot setup.One good aspect is that it installs as a separate app, decoupled from the OS. This means that users can update the app without having to wait for Windows OS updates to become available.Summarizing your command-line usage on Linux The app in the Microsoft Store is not a new version of WSL. It’s still WSL 2, but is a preview version that was added as an option for end users to get the latest features faster and more conveniently. The binaries will no longer be part of the Windows image.To read this article in full, please click here

Installing packages on Linux and Mac with Homebrew

Ever heard of Homebrew? It’s a package manager with a very unusual feature. It allows ordinary users to install packages without using sudo, and it’s available for both macOS and Linux. While the tool on each of these systems is referred to as Homebrew, the Linux version installs as linuxbrew.Once installed, users can use Homebrew via the brew command to install packages very easily. Installation of Homebrew itself, however, does generally require sudo privileges and installs in /home/linuxbrew.The man page for the brew command calls it “The Missing Package Manager for macOS (or Linux)”.To read this article in full, please click here

Installing packages on Linux and Mac with Homebrew

Ever heard of Homebrew? It’s a package manager with a very unusual feature. It allows ordinary users to install packages without using sudo, and it’s available for both macOS and Linux. While the tool on each of these systems is referred to as Homebrew, the Linux version installs as linuxbrew.Once installed, users can use Homebrew via the brew command to install packages very easily. Installation of Homebrew itself, however, does generally require sudo privileges and installs in /home/linuxbrew.The man page for the brew command calls it “The Missing Package Manager for macOS (or Linux)”.To read this article in full, please click here

Fedora Linux declared a ‘digital public good’

Fedora Linux has been recognized as a "digital public good" by the Digital Public Goods Alliance (DPGA), a strategy group set up by UNICEF to promote sustainable development through open-source solutions that contribute to an equitable world.The reasons Fedora was recognized include that Fedora: promotes best practices and adheres to standards creates an innovative platform for hardware, clouds, and containers that enables software developers and community members to build tailored solutions for their users is free of charge and comes with permissions to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense and/or sell copies of the software without restrictions other than that the same permissions must be granted to anyone using resulting products adheres to privacy and other applicable international and domestic laws shares personal information in limited and acknowledged ways causes no harm follows privacy policy guidelines and makes privacy policy available to partners Finding installed packages on Fedora Linux systems DPGA also notes that Fedora is actively used in 483 countries.To read this article in full, please click here

Fedora Linux declared a ‘digital public good’

Fedora Linux has been recognized as a "digital public good" by the Digital Public Goods Alliance (DPGA), a strategy group set up by UNICEF to promote sustainable development through open-source solutions that contribute to an equitable world.The reasons Fedora was recognized include that Fedora: promotes best practices and adheres to standards creates an innovative platform for hardware, clouds, and containers that enables software developers and community members to build tailored solutions for their users is free of charge and comes with permissions to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense and/or sell copies of the software without restrictions other than that the same permissions must be granted to anyone using resulting products adheres to privacy and other applicable international and domestic laws shares personal information in limited and acknowledged ways causes no harm follows privacy policy guidelines and makes privacy policy available to partners Finding installed packages on Fedora Linux systems DPGA also notes that Fedora is actively used in 483 countries.To read this article in full, please click here

Looking at your Linux system’s network interface with ethtool

The ethtool utility on Linux allows you to view and change some of your network-driver and interface-card settings, especially for wired devices. These include their speed, whether the interface uses auto-negotiation, and whether it runs in half- or full-duplex mode. Ethtool also provides an easy way to view or troubleshoot your network interface.More than likely, ethtool is already available on your Linux system. However, to check, you can use one or both of these commands:$ which ethtool /usr/sbin/ethtool $ sudo ethtool —version ethtool version 5.13 To get a sense of how this utility can control settings, run a command like the one below. The -h means “help”. You’ll likely find yourself looking at 10 pages or so of syntax like what is shown here.To read this article in full, please click here

Looking at your Linux system’s network interface with ethtool

The ethtool utility on Linux allows you to view and change some of your network-driver and interface-card settings, especially for wired devices. These include their speed, whether the interface uses auto-negotiation, and whether it runs in half- or full-duplex mode. Ethtool also provides an easy way to view or troubleshoot your network interface.More than likely, ethtool is already available on your Linux system. However, to check, you can use one or both of these commands:$ which ethtool /usr/sbin/ethtool $ sudo ethtool —version ethtool version 5.13 To get a sense of how this utility can control settings, run a command like the one below. The -h means “help”. You’ll likely find yourself looking at 10 pages or so of syntax like what is shown here.To read this article in full, please click here

Managing and monitoring swap space on Linux

Most of us don't often think about swap space unless we run into a problem on our systems that suggests we don't have enough. Even so, viewing and gauging the adequacy of swap space on a system is not overly complicated, and knowing what's normal for your system can help you spot when something is wrong. So let's check out some commands that can help you look into your swap space. But first, let's review some fundamentals.What swap space is and how it's used Swap space is disk space that acts something like an extension of memory. It gets used when the system's physical memory (RAM) is full and the system needs more memory resources. It's called "swap" because the system will move some inactive pages in memory into the swap space so that it can accommodate more data in RAM. In other words, it provides a way to free up RAM on a busy system.To read this article in full, please click here

Managing and monitoring swap space on Linux

Most of us don't often think about swap space unless we run into a problem on our systems that suggests we don't have enough. Even so, viewing and gauging the adequacy of swap space on a system is not overly complicated, and knowing what's normal for your system can help you spot when something is wrong. So let's check out some commands that can help you look into your swap space. But first, let's review some fundamentals.What swap space is and how it's used Swap space is disk space that acts something like an extension of memory. It gets used when the system's physical memory (RAM) is full and the system needs more memory resources. It's called "swap" because the system will move some inactive pages in memory into the swap space so that it can accommodate more data in RAM. In other words, it provides a way to free up RAM on a busy system.To read this article in full, please click here

Sleeping and waiting on Linux

The Linux sleep and wait commands allow you to run commands at a chosen pace or capture and display the exit status of a task after waiting for it to finish. Sleep simply inserts a timed pause between commands. Wait, on the other hand, waits until a process completes before notifying you that it has finished.Sleep The sleep command pauses for a specified time. It’s generally used in a script, but works on the command line as well. In the example below, sleep pauses a minute between the two date commands.$ date; sleep 60; date Wed Sep 8 12:10:40 PM EDT 2021 Wed Sep 8 12:11:40 PM EDT 2021 Summarizing your command-line usage on Linux The sleep command takes the numeric argument as the number of seconds. You can, however, ask it to sleep for various amounts of time by adding another character to the argument: 1m = 1 minute 2h = 2 hours 3d = 3 days $ date; sleep 1m; date Wed Sep 8 12:16:38 PM EDT 2021 Wed Sep 8 12:17:38 PM EDT 2021 In fact, you can sleep for less than a second if you need.To read this article in full, please click here

Sleeping and waiting on Linux

The Linux sleep and wait commands allow you to run commands at a chosen pace or capture and display the exit status of a task after waiting for it to finish. Sleep simply inserts a timed pause between commands. Wait, on the other hand, waits until a process completes before notifying you that it has finished.Sleep The sleep command pauses for a specified time. It’s generally used in a script, but works on the command line as well. In the example below, sleep pauses a minute between the two date commands.$ date; sleep 60; date Wed Sep 8 12:10:40 PM EDT 2021 Wed Sep 8 12:11:40 PM EDT 2021 Summarizing your command-line usage on Linux The sleep command takes the numeric argument as the number of seconds. You can, however, ask it to sleep for various amounts of time by adding another character to the argument: 1m = 1 minute 2h = 2 hours 3d = 3 days $ date; sleep 1m; date Wed Sep 8 12:16:38 PM EDT 2021 Wed Sep 8 12:17:38 PM EDT 2021 In fact, you can sleep for less than a second if you need.To read this article in full, please click here

Using the Linux set command

The Linux set command allows you to change the value of shell options or to display the names and values of shell variables. Rarely used, it is a bash builtin, but is quite a bit more complicated than most builtins.If you use the command without any arguments, you will get a list of all the settings—the names and values of all shell variables and functions. Watch out though! You’ll end up with a torrent of output flowing down your screen. There are just short of 3,000 lines of output on my Fedora system:$ set | wc -l 2954 The top of the list looks like what you see below, but the output gets considerably more complicated as you move through it.To read this article in full, please click here

Using the Linux set command

The Linux set command allows you to change the value of shell options or to display the names and values of shell variables. Rarely used, it is a bash builtin, but is quite a bit more complicated than most builtins.If you use the command without any arguments, you will get a list of all the settings—the names and values of all shell variables and functions. Watch out though! You’ll end up with a torrent of output flowing down your screen. There are just short of 3,000 lines of output on my Fedora system:$ set | wc -l 2954 The top of the list looks like what you see below, but the output gets considerably more complicated as you move through it.To read this article in full, please click here

Linux turns 30

Something happened back in 1991 that dramatically changed the future of computing. Linus Torvalds, a Finnish-American software engineer, released the Linux kernel and the second version of the GNU General Public License (GPLv2). A good portion of the technology we use today would not be what it is had this not happened.It all started on August 25th of that year when Torvalds announced in a usenet post that he was working on a free OS and that it would be ready within a few months. He also said it "won't be big and professional like gnu," but that wasn't exactly how things turned out!The GPL The beauty of the Gnu GPL was that, instead of restricting what users can do with the Linux kernel, it maximized their rights. Richard Stallman, GNU founder, referred to these rights as the "four freedoms." They include the freedom to run, copy, study/improve and distribute. This was akin to turning the function of a license inside out.To read this article in full, please click here

Linux turns 30

Something happened back in 1991 that dramatically changed the future of computing. Linus Torvalds, a Finnish-American software engineer, released the Linux kernel and the second version of the GNU General Public License (GPLv2). A good portion of the technology we use today would not be what it is had this not happened.It all started on August 25th of that year when Torvalds announced in a usenet post that he was working on a free OS and that it would be ready within a few months. He also said it "won't be big and professional like gnu," but that wasn't exactly how things turned out!The GPL The beauty of the Gnu GPL was that, instead of restricting what users can do with the Linux kernel, it maximized their rights. Richard Stallman, GNU founder, referred to these rights as the "four freedoms." They include the freedom to run, copy, study/improve and distribute. This was akin to turning the function of a license inside out.To read this article in full, please click here

Choosing and changing your Linux shell

There are quite a few shells on Linux system and more that can be easily added. This post examines some of the more popular shells, how they differ and the files that contribute to their configuration.The default shell on most Linux systems is bash. Unless you make an effort, any user accounts added to the system will be assigned bash as their login shell. Bash has been around since 1989 and was meant to replace the Bourne shell (sh). In fact, if you take a look at /bin/sh, you'll probably find that it's nothing more than a symbolic link to /bin/bash.$ ls -l /bin/sh lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 4 Jan 25 2021 /bin/sh -> bash Summarizing your command-line usage on Linux   Popular Shells Some of the best and most popular shells include:To read this article in full, please click here

Choosing and changing your Linux shell

There are quite a few shells on Linux system and more that can be easily added. This post examines some of the more popular shells, how they differ and the files that contribute to their configuration.The default shell on most Linux systems is bash. Unless you make an effort, any user accounts added to the system will be assigned bash as their login shell. Bash has been around since 1989 and was meant to replace the Bourne shell (sh). In fact, if you take a look at /bin/sh, you'll probably find that it's nothing more than a symbolic link to /bin/bash.$ ls -l /bin/sh lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 4 Jan 25 2021 /bin/sh -> bash Summarizing your command-line usage on Linux   Popular Shells Some of the best and most popular shells include:To read this article in full, please click here

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