IaC – unit tests with jSNAPy and Ansible

JSNAPY is an open source tool released by Juniper Networks circa 2015 that is the Python version of the Juniper Snapshot Administrator. This tool in the most simplest sense gives us the ability to have unit-tests when working with Junos, much in the same way a developer would write tests against their code. JSNAPy creates snapshots of a device’s operational or configurational state, the content of which depends on tests. JSNAPy then can diff and check these snapshots, which when combined with your test logic, means you can detect when things change or don’t change as per your desire. It’s a simple but effective tool when working with Junos. In fact, if you have another system to take the snapshot, JSNAPy is really an XML snippet checking tool and thus, it can be used for multi-vendored environments!!!

JSNAPy is a great tool for not only dealing with operational changes, but also also for steady state change operations too through the use of both

tests and the logical operators JSNAPy supports. It’s worth mentioning you can call the snaps and tests anything you want. Bob and Alice are both valid examples of a snap name, but the advice Continue reading

No, drone delivery still isn’t ready for prime time

April has a been a big month for drone delivery. First, Alphabet’s Wing Aviation drones got approval from Australia’s Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA), for public deliveries in the country, and this week Wing earned Air Carrier Certification from the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration. These two regulatory wins got lot of people got very excited. Finally, the conventional wisdom exulted, drone delivery is actually becoming a reality.To read this article in full, please click here

The first video ever uploaded to YouTube

Today is the anniversary of the first video being uploaded to YouTube.On February 14, 2005, Chad Hurly, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim purchased a domain name that would forever change the way media is disseminated and consumed. That's when the aforementioned individuals got together and purchased the YouTube.com domain.YouTube was famously founded by the trifecta of Hurly, Chen, and Karim, three early employees of PayPal. On May 19, 2005, the first preview of the site was made available to the public. So seeing how today is YouTube's birthday, of sorts, I thought it might be fun to go back and look at the first YouTube video ever uploaded to the site.To read this article in full, please click here

The Internet Society’s African Chapters Join the African Union and Other Partners to Discuss IoT Security, Privacy, and Digital ID in Africa

In collaboration with the Africa Union Commission (AUC), the Africa Telecommunication Union (ATU), and Omidyar Network, from 8-11 April 2019 the Africa Regional Bureau successfully gathered in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 103 participants comprising Internet Society Chapter leaders, African Regional economic bodies, privacy experts, regulators, and data protection agencies to a two-day workshop on IoT Security, Privacy, and Digital ID followed by the 2019 African Chapters Advocacy Meeting.

The first day of the workshop focused on IoT opportunities and security considerations. It explored the IoT landscape in Africa and shared active deployments and chapter-led projects. The day also discussed IoT security and privacy considerations with emphasis on frameworks that could be implemented to ensure the security and safety of IoT devices. A dedicated session on aligning policy and IoT security needs shared the experience of the Senegal multistakeholder IoT security process and motivated member states to initiate a similar process in their countries.

The second day focused on localizing the AUC and Internet Society Personal Data Protection Guidelines. Our partners AUC, Omidyar Network, Mozilla Foundation, and UNECA unpacked issues related to digital identity, personal data protection and privacy in the region. The meeting explored the nature of policies in place to Continue reading

Girls in ICT Day: Attend the Global Marathon in Digital Skills Development

There’s a lack of gender diversity at all levels in the technology sector. This is partly because the number of female students in mathematics, engineering, computer science, and science is disproportionately low around the world. So how do we close this gap?

Support for the education of women and girls in the ICT sector is consistent with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – in particular SDG 5, aimed at achieving gender equality and empowering all women and girls through, among other things, information and communication technologies.

The Women’s Special Interest Group (Women SIG) of the Internet Society is committed to promoting the participation of women in the Internet ecosystem, especially considering the importance to increase the participation of girls and adolescents in Information Technology and Communication.

This April 25, International Day of Girls in ICT, promoted by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), aims to reduce the digital gender gap and to encourage and motivate girls to participate in technology careers. With the support of the Internet Society Chapters and local civil society organizations, we’re planning to celebrate the day with a global marathon of training in digital skills development. We want to motivate girls and teenagers to study and Continue reading

The Climate and Cloudflare

The Climate and Cloudflare
The Climate and Cloudflare

Power is the precursor to all modern technology. James Watt’s steam engine energized the factory, Edison and Tesla’s inventions powered street lamps, and now both fossil fuels and renewable resources power the trillions of transistors in computers and phones. In the words of anthropologist Leslie White: “Other things being equal, the degree of cultural development varies directly as the amount of energy per capita per year harnessed and put to work.”

Unfortunately, most of the traditional ways to generate power are simply not sustainable. Burning coal or natural gas releases carbon dioxide which directly leads to global warming, and threatens the habitats of global ecosystems, and by extension humans. If we can’t minimize the impact, our world will be dangerously destabilized -- mass extinctions will grow more likely, and mass famines, draughts, migration, and conflict will only be possible to triage rather than avoid.

Is the Internet the primary source of this grave threat? No: all data centers globally accounted for 2-3% of total global power use in recent years, and power consumption isn’t the only contributor to human carbon emissions. Transportation (mostly oil use in cars, trucks, ships, trains, and airplanes) and industrial processing (steel, chemicals, heavy manufacturing, Continue reading

BrandPost: Edge computing is in most industries’ future

The growth of edge computing is about to take a huge leap. Right now, companies are generating about 10% of their data outside a traditional data center or cloud. But within the next six years, that will increase to 75%, according to Gartner.That’s largely down to the need to process data emanating from devices, such as Internet of Things (IoT) sensors. Early adopters include: Manufacturers: Devices and sensors seem endemic to this industry, so it’s no surprise to see the need to find faster processing methods for the data produced. A recent Automation World survey found that 43% of manufacturers have deployed edge projects. Most popular use cases have included production/manufacturing data analysis and equipment data analytics. Retailers: Like most industries deeply affected by the need to digitize operations, retailers are being forced to innovate their customer experiences. To that end, these organizations are “investing aggressively in compute power located closer to the buyer,” writes Dave Johnson, executive vice president of the IT division at Schneider Electric. He cites examples such as augmented-reality mirrors in fitting rooms that offer different clothing options without the consumer having to try on the items, and beacon-based heat maps that show Continue reading

Prometheus exporter

Prometheus is an open source time series database optimized to collect large numbers of metrics from cloud infrastructure. This article will explore how industry standard sFlow telemetry streaming supported by network devices (Arista, Aruba, Cisco, Dell, Huawei, Juniper, etc.) and Host sFlow agents (Linux, Windows, FreeBSD, AIX, Solaris, Docker, Systemd, Hyper-V, KVM, Nutanix AHV, Xen) can be integrated with Prometheus to extend visibility into the network.

The diagram above shows the elements of the solution: sFlow telemetry streams from hosts and switches to an instance of sFlow-RT. The sFlow-RT analytics software converts the raw measurements into metrics that are accessible through a REST API. The sflow-rt/prometheus application extends the REST API to include native Prometheus exporter functionality allowing Prometheus to retrieve metrics. Prometheus stores metrics in a time series database that can be queries by Grafana to build dashboards.

The Docker sflow/prometheus image provides a simple way to run the application:
docker run --name sflow-rt -p 8008:8008 -p 6343:6343/udp -d sflow/prometheus
Configure sFlow agents to send data to the collector,, on port 6343.

Verify that the metrics are available using cURL:
$ curl
ifinucastpkts{agent="",datasource="2",host="server",ifname="enp3s0"} 9.44
ifoutdiscards{agent="10. Continue reading

How to identify same-content files on Linux

In a recent post, we looked at how to identify and locate files that are hard links (i.e., that point to the same disk content and share inodes). In this post, we'll check out commands for finding files that have the same content, but are not otherwise connected.Hard links are helpful because they allow files to exist in multiple places in the file system while not taking up any additional disk space. Copies of files, on the other hand, sometimes represent a big waste of disk space and run some risk of causing some confusion if you want to make updates. In this post, we're going to look at multiple ways to identify these files.To read this article in full, please click here

Amazon CloudFront with WordPress as Infrastructure as Code

There are roughly a GAJILLION articles, blogs, and documents out there that explain how to setup Amazon CloudFront to work with WordPress.

Most of them are wrong in one or more ways.

  • They advise a type of cache behavior that is incorrect for one or more WordPress assets.
  • They fail to provide any advice for WordPress assets that need specific cache behavior.
  • The article/blog/document is stale and hasn’t been updated to reflect changes in newer versions of WordPress.

Rather than fall into the trap of writing yet another article for whatever the “now current” version of WordPress is that will likely fall victim to one or more of the conditions listed above, I’m going to take a different approach.

I’m going to codify the CloudFront configuration, version it on GitHub, and adopt an “infrastructure-as-code” (IaC) mentality. This blog post will describe the overall architecture and provide some context, but the actual mechanics of setting up CloudFront to work with WordPress will live (and evolve!) in the IaC files themselves which will be under version control.

Let’s do it!

The Architecture

I’ll say this up front: this architecture may not be for everyone (but I have a sneaky Continue reading